Monday, 22 August 2016

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Saturday, 6 August 2016

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Monday, 18 July 2016

Computer Fundamentals & Number System for BSNL JE and ESE 2017

Computer Fundamentals & Programming Elements

BSNL JE Previous year Question paper

BSNL TTA Exam Papers - Computer Related Question Papers 1. What is the name of the software that allows us to browse through web pages? (a) Browser (b) Mail Client (c) FTP Client (d) Messenger 2. What is the address given to a network called? (a) System Address (b) SYSID (c) Process ID (d) IP Address 3. Which one of the following is a valid DOS command? (a) LIST *.* (b) LIST???. (c) RECOVER A: (d) RENAME A:SAMPLE.TXT C:TEST.DOC 4. All system settings in WINDOWS are stored in: (a) CONTROL.INI (b) MAIN.INI (c) SYSTEM.INI (d) SETTING.INI 5. Which number system is usually followed in a typical 32-bit computer? (a) 2 (b) 10 (c) 16 (d) 32 6. Which of the following is not an output device: (a) Printer (b) Scanner (c) Flat Screen (d) Touch Screen 7. A microprocessor is a processor with reduced (a) instruction set (b) power requirement (c) MIPS performance (d) none of the above 8. Which of the following is not an output of an assembler? (a) executable program (b) source listing with line numbers and errors (c) a symbol table (d) object program 9. Which layer of OSI model is responsible for routing and flow control: (a) Presentation (b) Transport (c) Network (d) Data Link 10. Arrays are passed as arguments to a function by (a) value (b) reference (c) both a and b (d) none of the above 11. Array is: (a) linear data structure (b) non-linear structure (c) none of the above 12. A data structure in which elements are added and removed from only one end, is known as: (a) Array (b) Stack (c) Queue (d) None of the above 13. A diamond-shaped box in an Entity-Relationship diagram refers to: (a) Entity (b) Relationship (c) Attribute 14. The principle means of identifying entities within an entity set is: (a) Primary Key (b) Record (c) Attribute (d) Tuple 15. Modem refers to: (a) Modulator (b) Modulation (c) Demodulator (d) Modulator and Demodulator 16. C language is available for which of the following Operating Systems? (a) DOS (b) Windows (c) Unix (d) All of the above 17. Which of the following have the fastest access time? (a) Magnetic Tapes (b) Magnetic Disks (c) Semiconductor Memories (d) Compact Disks 18. DMA stands for: (a) Direct Memory Allocation (b) Distinct Memory Allocation (c) Direct Memory Access (d) Distinct Memory Access 19. Array subscripts in C always start at: (a):1 (b) 0 (c) 1 (d) Value provided by user 20. Which type of commands in DOS needs additional files for their execution? (a) Batch Commands (b) Internal Commands (c) External Commands 21. Which of the following statements in regard to Directories is false? (a) Directories can exist inside directories (b) The root directory is always at the highest level (c) Directories with files can be deleted (d) Directories cannot be renamed 22. It is better to buffer a table when (a) When a table is read infrequently (b) When a table is linked to check tables (c) When a table is read frequently and the data seldom changes (d) When a single record is to be picked up 23. The Operating System is responsible for: (a) Controlling peripheral devices such as monitor, printers, disk drives (b) Provide an interface that allows users to choose programs to run and to manipulate files (c) Manage users’ files on disk (d) All of the above 24. A company whishes to connect two sites in different parts of the country together. It is decided to use the telephone system. What device should be connected to the fileservers on each site? (a) Router (b) Modem (c) Switch (d) Hub 25. What is a file server? (a) A computer that performs a service for other computers (b) A computer that controls the printers on the network (c) A computer that stores files that are created by network users 26. What is the Protocol used for the Internet? (a) IPX/SPX (b) NetBIOS/NetBEUI (c) CDMA/CA (d) TCP/IP 27. Which one of the following is not a Normal Forms (Normalization) rule with regards to the Relational Model? (a) All fields within a table must relate to or directly describe the Primary Key. (b) Repeating Groups must be eliminated from tables. (c) Fields that can contain non-numeric data are to be removed and placed within their own tables with an associated Primary Key. (d) Redundant data is to be eliminated by placing the offending fields in another table. 28. Choose the answer which best describes the term Primary Key: (a) The Primary Key is a field that contains data that can be duplicated. (b) The Primary Key is a field that contains data that is unique. (c) The Primary Key is a field that is never associated with any field in other tables. (d) The Primary Key field is a concept used only in Microsoft Access. 29. Which technique is used to reduce the size of a file: (a) Compression (b) Decompression (c) Encryption (d) Decryption 30. BIOS stands for (a) Binary Input Output Set (b) Binary Input Output System (c) Basic Input Output Set (d) Basic Input Output System 31. A floppy disk is consisting of 40 tracks, each track contains 100 sectors, and the capacity of a sector is 512 bytes, what is the approx. size of that disk? (a) 1 MB (b) 2 MB (c) 4 MB (d) 8 MB 32. What is the binary equivalent of a decimal number 68: (a) 1000100 (b) 1100100 (c) 1000010 (d) 1000001 33. Assembly language to machine language translation is: (a) One-to-One (b) One-to-Many (c) Many-to-One (d) Many-to-Many 34. Maximum size of IP address is: (a) 12 bits (b) 24 bits (c) 32 bits (d) 48 bits 35. RAM stands for (a) Read Access Memory (b) Read After Memory (c) Random Access Memory (d) Random After Memory 36. What is the final value of sum? main () { int sum=1; for(;sum<=9;) printf(%d\n, ++sum); } (a) 9 (b) 10 (c) 11 (d) none of the above 37. If c is a variable initialized to 1, how many times the following loop be executed: while(c>0 && c<60) { c++; } (a) 59 (b) 60 (c) 61 (d) none of the above 38. The declaration void fun(int) indicates the fun is a function which: (a) has no arguments (b) returns nothing (c) both a and b (d) none of the above 39. Out of the following which is not valid network topology: (a) Bus (b) Star (c) Circle (d) Tree 40. The overall logical structure of a database can be expressed graphically by: (a) Data Flow Diagram (b) Flow Chart (c) Directed Graph (d) Entity-Relationship Diagram 41. CARRY, in a half-adder, can be obtained using: (a) OR gate (b) AND gate (c) EX-OR gate (d) EX-AND gate 42. The memory that requires refreshing of data is: (a) SROM (b) DROM (c) SRAM (d) DRAM 43. The minimum number of bits required to represent numbers in the range:28 to +31 is- (a) 5 (b) 6 (c) 7 (d) 8 44. Which bus carries information between processors and peripherals? (a) Data bus (b) Control bus (c) Address bus (d) Information bus 45. Which part of the computer perform arithmetic calculations? (a) Control unit (b) Registers (c) ALU (d) CPU 46. A gigabyte represents: (a) 1 billion bytes (b) 1000 kilobytes (c) 230 bytes (d) 10 megabytes 47. The minimum number of bits required to store the hexadecimal number FF is: (a) 2 (b) 4 (c) 8 (d) 16 48. Cache memory enhances: (a) memory capacity (b) memory access time (c) secondary storage capacity (d) secondary storage access time 49. A UPS: (a) increases the storage capacity of a computer system (b) increases the processor speed (c) provides backup power in the event of a power cut\ (d) none of the above 50. An RDBMS is a: (a) Remote DBMS (b) Relative DBMS (c) Reliable DBMS (d) Relational DBMS

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Friday, 15 July 2016

BSNL JE Notes

Engineers Zone Founder’s Profile
Mr Qaisar Hafiz(Ex-IES, MD Engineers Zone)    B.Tech (Hons.) IIT Roorkee     Qualified I.E.S. Exam conducted by UPSC five times in the year 2002, 2004, 2005, 2006 & 2007 with AIR-23, AIR-27, AIR-15, AIR-11 & AIR-02 respectively   has a distinguished record of securing more than 150 marks out of 200 in IES Interview conducted by UPSC  16 Years of Teaching Experience in the same field  Author of around 20 Text books & Guide books in the relevant field  More than 52000 views, 300+ subscriptions, 800+ likes of one video among many videos uploaded on YouTube last year topic “How to crack IES, GATE & PSUs in first attempt by Qaisar Hafiz” https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jnFkMvh3raI
Our Results: IES-2014 Ranks in Top 100: 1, 5, 7, 8, 8, 11, 15, 17, 21, 22, 23, 23, 25, 32, 33, 52, 56, 57, 62, 63, 71, 74, 89 and many more  GATE-2015 Ranks in Top 100: 3, 6, 7, 15, 16, 16, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29, 35, 38, 40, 43, 44, 51,     53, 57, 58, 62, 67, 74, 76, 77, 80, 89, 95 and many more IES-2015 Ranks in Top 100: 2, 5, 10, 11, 13, 19, 21, 25, 35, 36, 41, 47, 52, 69, 77 and many     more GATE 2016 Ranks in Top 100: 05, 08, 09, 12, 16, 19, 22, 31, 47, 55, 63, 67, 72, 77, 88, 90, 93, 95 and many more    

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INTRODUCTION TO COMPUTER
 Data  Information  Data processing  Definition of computer  Characteristics of computer  Classifications of computers   On the basis of mode of data used   On the basis of speed  Generations of computers  Block diagram of a digital computer  Components of digital computers  Hardware   CPU    ALU    Control Unit   Input Devices   Output Devices  Memory   Primary Memory   Secondary Memory   Cache Memory  Software   System software   Application software   Utility software  Operating Systems Functions of Operating System   Types of Operating System   DOS commands   Programming languages   High level and Low level   Generation of languages  Translators   Assemblers   Compilers   Interpreters  Creating and  running Programs  

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Data: It is the plural form of datum which means fact. Data can be defined as representation of facts, figures or observations. For example numbers, words, quantities etc. are data. Information: Data arranged in useful and meaningful form is known as information. Data Processing: Transformation of data into information is called data processing.
Processing  
 Data
      Information Computer: Computer is the combination of electronic and electro-mechanical devices which processes data under the control of a set of instructions, called program. Computer has ability to 1. Accept data, 2. Process the data as per requirement, 3. Gives information.
CHARACTERISTICS OF COMPUTER:
Roll Number Marks 111 33 112 73 113 61 114 21
33 111 73 112 61 114 113 21

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1. Speed Since Computer is an electronic machine and electrical pulses travel at the rate of passage of electric current. This speed enables the computer to process millions instructions per second (MIPS). 2. Storage A computer has too much storage capacity. Once recorded, a piece of information can never be forgotten. 3. Accuracy A computer can be considered as 100% accurate. Checking circuits are built directly into the computer, that computer errors that undetected are extremely rare. 4. Versatility Computer can handle variety of jobs and can be used in various fields. 5. Diligence Computer never gets tired. It can perform repetitive tasks without getting tired or bored. 6. Automation Once a program is fed into computer the individual instructions are processed automatically without human intervention. 7. NO IQ Computer is a dumb machine and it cannot do any work without instruction from the user. It performs the instructions at tremendous speed and with accuracy. It is you to decide what you want to do and in what sequence. So a computer cannot take its own decision as you can. 8. NO Feelings It does not have feelings or emotion, taste, knowledge and experience. Thus it does not get tired even after long hours of work. It does not distinguish between users.
CLASSIFICATION OF COMPUTERS On the basis of mode of data used

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1. Analog Computers Analog computers are used to process continuous data. Analog computers represent variables by physical quantities. Thus any computer which solve problem by translating physical conditions such as flow, temperature, pressure, angular position or voltage into related mechanical or electrical related circuits as an analog for the physical phenomenon being investigated in general it is a computer which uses an analog quantity and produces analog values as output. Thus an analog computer measures continuously. Analog computers are very much speedy. They produce their results very fast. But their results are approximately correct. All the analog computers are special purpose computers. 2. Digital Computers Digital computer represents physical quantities with the help of digits or numbers. These numbers are used to perform Arithmetic calculations and also make logical decision to reach a conclusion, depending on, the data they receive from the user. 3. Hybrid Computers Various specifically designed computers are with both digital and analog characteristics combining the advantages of analog and digital computers when working as a system. Hybrid computers are being used extensively in process control system where it is necessary to have a close representation with the physical world.      
On the basis of size 1. Micro Computers

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A micro-computer is the computer built around a micro-processor such as Intel 80386, 80486 etc. A micro-processor is a complete CPU on a single micro chip. These computers are used as personal computers. Examples: IBM-PC, Pentium-III, P-IV, Apple Macintosh etc. 2. Mini Computers Mini computers are smaller than mainframes, both in size and other facilities such as speed, storage capacity and other services. They are versatile that they can be fitted where ever they are needed. Their speeds are rated between one and fifty million instructions per second (MIPS). They have primary storage in hundred to three hundred megabytes range with direct access storage device. Examples: PDP-8, Work Horse, HCL Magnum. 3. Main Frame Computers The mainframe computers are large and very powerful computer systems. These systems have a very high capacity of main memory and can process huge databases at extremely fast rate. They are suitable for big organizations, bank, industries etc. Examples: IBM4381, CDC-6600, ICL-2900, CYBER-170 etc. 4. Super Computers Large scientific and research laboratories as well as the government organizations have extra ordinary demand for processing data which required tremendous processing speed, memory and other services which may not be provided with any other category to meet their needs. Therefore very large computers, called Super Computers, are used. These computers are extremely expensive and the speed is measured in billions of instructions per seconds. Examples: CRAY XMP-24, CDC-7600, NEC-500, PARAM-9000, ANURAG etc. PARAM and ANURAG are super computers produced by India.  
GENERATIONS OF COMPUTERS

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You know that the evolution of computer started from 16th century and resulted in the form that we see today. The present day computer, however, has also undergone rapid change during the last fifty years. This period, during which the evolution of computer took place, can be divided into five distinct phases known as Generations of Computers. Each phase is distinguished from others on the basis of the type of switching circuits used. First Generation Computers (1940-56) First generation computers used Thermion valves (Vacuum Tubes). These computers were large in size and writing programs on them was difficult. Some of the computers of this generation were: ENIAC, EDVAC, UNIVAC-1, etc. Followings were the major drawbacks of first generation computers. 1. They were quite bulky. 2. The operating speed was quite slow. 3. Power consumption was very high. 4. It required large space for installation. 5. They had no operating system. 6. The programming capability was quite low. Second Generation Computers (1956-64) Around 1959 an electronic device called Transistor replaced the bulky vacuum tubes in the first generation computer. A single transistor contained circuit produced by several hundred vacuum tubes. Thus the size of the computer got reduced considerably. Transistors therefore provided higher operating speed than vacuum tubes. They had no filament and require no heating. Manufacturing cost was also very low. Some of the computers of the Second Generation were IBM1920, IBM1401, CDC3600, etc. The salient features of this generation were: 1. relatively faster than the first generation computers. 2. smaller than the first generation computers 3. generated lower level of heat 4. more reliable

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Third Generation Computers (1964-71) The third generation computers were introduced in 1964. They used Integrated Circuits (ICs). These ICs are popularly known as Chips. A single IC has many transistors, resistors and capacitors built on a single thin slice of silicon. So it is quite obvious that the size of the computer got further reduced. Some of the computers developed during this period were IBM-360, ICL-1900, IBM-370, and VAX-750. The features of computers belonging to this generation were: 1. used tiny ICs 2. relatively very small in size 3. made use of operating system 4. high processing speed 5. more reliable 6. power efficient and high speed 7. large memory 8. low cost Fourth Generation Computers (1971 onwards) The present day computers that you see today are the fourth generation computers that started around 1975. It uses Large Scale Integrated Circuits (LSIC) built on a single silicon chip called microprocessors. Due to the development of microprocessor it is possible to place computer’s central processing unit (CPU) on a single chip. These computers are called microcomputers. Later very large scale Integrated Circuits (VLSIC) replaced LSICs. These integrated circuits are so advanced that they incorporate hundreds of thousands of active components in volumes of a fraction of an inch. Thus the computer, which was occupying a very large room in earlier days, can now be placed on a table. The personal computer (PC) that you see in your school is a Fourth Generation Computer. The salient features of this generation are: 1. very fast

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2. very low heat generation 3. smaller in size 4. very reliable 5. negligible hardware failure 6. highly sophisticated Fifth Generation Computers (Present and Future) The computers, which can think and take decisions like human beings have been characterized as Fifth generation computers and are also referred as thinking machines. The speed is extremely high in fifth generation computer. Apart from this they can perform parallel processing. The concept of Artificial Intelligence has been introduced to allow the computer to take its own decision. It is still in a developmental stage. A lot of research and development work is going on in this area in all over the world but it will take some time before such machines are produced for use by the industry.
BLOCK DIAGRAM OF A DIGITAL COMPUTER

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COMPONENTS OF DIGITAL COMPUTERS HARDWARE The physical components of a computer system are called hardware. Now let us identify the physical components that make the computer work. These are  1. Central Processing Unit (CPU)  2. Computer Memory (RAM and ROM)  3. Data bus  4. Ports  5. Motherboard  6. Hard disk  7. Output Devices  8. Input Devices  All these components are inter-connected for the personal computer to work. Arithmetic Logical Unit (ALU)
MEMORY
CONTROL UNIT
ALU General Purpose Register ACCUMULATOR
AUXILIARY MEMORY
INPUT OUTPUT
CPU

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After you enter data through the input device it is stored in the primary storage unit. The actual processing of the data and instruction are performed by Arithmetic Logical Unit. The major operations performed by the ALU are addition, subtraction, multiplication, division, logic and comparison. Data is transferred to ALU from storage unit when required. After processing the output is returned back to storage unit for further processing or getting stored.  Control Unit (CU)  The next component of computer is the Control Unit, which acts like the supervisor seeing that things are done in proper fashion. The control unit determines the sequence in which computer programs and instructions are executed. Things like processing of programs stored in the main memory, interpretation of the instructions and issuing of signals for other units of the computer to execute them. It also acts as a switch board operator when several users access the computer simultaneously. Thereby it coordinates the activities of computer’s peripheral equipment as they perform the input and output. Therefore it is the manager of all operations mentioned in the previous section.  Central Processing Unit (CPU)  The ALU and the CU of a computer system are jointly known as the central processing unit. You may call CPU as the brain of any computer system. It is just like brain that takes all major decisions, makes all sorts of calculations and directs different parts of the computer functions by activating and controlling the operations. Input Devices  Input devices are necessary to convert our information or data in to a form which can be understood by the computer. A good input device should provide timely, accurate and useful data to the main memory of the computer for processing followings are the most useful input devices.

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Keyboard: - This is the standard input device attached to all computers. The layout of keyboard is just like the traditional typewriter of the type QWERTY. It also contains some extra command keys and function keys. It contains a total of 101 to 104 keys.  Mouse: - Mouse is an input device that is used with your personal computer. It rolls on a small ball or through optical signals and has two or three buttons on the top. When you roll the mouse across a flat surface the screen censors the mouse in the direction of mouse movement. The cursor moves very fast with mouse giving you more freedom to work in any direction. It is easier and faster to move through a mouse.  Drawing Tablet and Digitizer: - A drawing tablet is similar to a white board, except you use a special pen (digitizer) to write on it and it's connected to the computer.  Then the word or image you draw can be saved on the computer. Joystick: - A joystick is used to move the cursor from place to place, and to click on various items in programs.  A joystick is used mostly for computer games. Scanner: The keyboard can input only text through keys provided in it. If we want to input a picture the keyboard cannot do that. Scanner is an optical device that can input any graphical matter and display it back. The common optical scanner devices are Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR), Optical Mark Reader (OMR) and Optical Character Reader (OCR). Magnetic Ink Character Recognition (MICR): - This is widely used by banks to process large volumes of cheques and drafts. Cheques are put inside the MICR. As they enter the reading unit the cheques pass through the magnetic field which causes the read head to recognise the character of the cheques.  Optical Mark Reader (OMR): This technique is used when students have appeared in objective type tests and they had to mark their answer by darkening a square or

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circular space by pencil. These answer sheets are directly fed to a computer for grading where OMR is used.  Optical Character Recognition (OCR): - This technique unites the direct reading of any printed character. Suppose you have a set of hand written characters on a piece of paper. You put it inside the scanner of the computer. This pattern is compared with a site of patterns stored inside the computer. Whichever pattern is matched is called a character read. Patterns that cannot be identified are rejected. OCRs are expensive though better the MICR.
Output Devices
Visual Display Unit: The most popular input/output device is the Visual Display Unit (VDU). It is also called the monitor. A Keyboard is used to input data and Monitor is used to display the input data and to receive massages from the computer. A monitor has its own box which is separated from the main computer system and is connected to the computer by cable. In some systems it is compact with the system unit. It can be color or monochrome.  Printer: - It is an important output device which can be used to get a printed copy of the processed text or result on paper. There are different types of printers that are designed for different types of applications. Depending on their speed and approach of printing, printers are classified as impact and non-impact printers. Impact printers use the familiar typewriter approach of hammering a typeface against the paper and inked ribbon. Dot-matrix printers are of this type. Non-impact printers do not hit or impact a ribbon to print. They use electro-static chemicals and ink-jet

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technologies. Laser printers and Ink-jet printers are of this type. This type of printers can produce color printing and elaborate graphics.  Headphones: - Headphones give sound output from the computer.  They are similar to speakers, except they are worn on the ears so only one person can hear the output at a time. Speaker - A speaker gives you sound output from your computer.  Some speakers are built into the computer and some are separate. MEMORY There are two kinds of computer memory:  1. Primary and  2. Secondary.  In computer’s memory both programs and data are stored in the binary form. The binary system has only two values 0 and 1. These are called bits (Binary Digits). Units of memory: 1 Byte = 8 bits. 1 KB (Kilobyte) = 1024 Byte = 210 Byte. 1MB (Megabyte) = 1024 KB = 220 Byte. 1GB (Gigabyte) = 1024 MB = 230 Byte. 1TB (Terabyte) = 1024 GB = 240 Byte 1PB (Petabyte) = 1024 TB = 250 Byte
Primary Memory (or internal memory) Primary memory is accessible directly by the processing unit. RAM is an example of primary memory. As soon as the computer is switched off the contents of the primary memory is lost. You can store and retrieve data much faster with primary memory compared to secondary memory. Primary memory is more expensive than secondary memory. Because of this the size of primary memory is less than that of secondary memory. 1. Random Access Memory (RAM): The primary storage is referred to as random access memory (RAM) because it is possible to randomly select and use any location

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of the memory directly store and retrieve data. It is also called read/write memory. The storage of data and instructions inside the primary storage is temporary. RAM is volatile memory because its contents disappear from RAM as soon as the power to the computer is switched off. 2. Read Only Memory (ROM): There is another memory in computer, which is called Read Only Memory (ROM). The storage of program and data in the ROM is permanent. The ROM stores some standard processing programs supplied by the manufacturers to operate the personal computer. The ROM can only be read by the CPU but it cannot be changed. The basic input/output system (BIOS) is stored in the ROM that examines and initializes various equipment attached to the PC when the switch is made ON. The memories, which do not loose their content on failure of power supply, are known as non-volatile memories. ROM is non-volatile memory.  3. PROM There is another type of primary memory in computer, which is called Programmable Read Only Memory (PROM). You know that it is not possible to modify or erase programs stored in ROM, but it is possible for you to store your program in PROM chip. Once the programs are written it cannot be changed and remain intact even if power is switched off. Therefore programs or instructions written in PROM or ROM cannot be erased or changed. 4. EPROM: This stands for Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory, which over come the problem of PROM & ROM. EPROM chip can be programmed time and again by erasing the information stored earlier in it. Information stored in EPROM exposing the chip for some time ultraviolet light and it erases chip is reprogrammed using a special programming facility. When the EPROM is in use information can only be read. 5. EEPROM: This stands for Electrically Erasable Programmable Read Only Memory. In this memory the contents are altered using electrical signals. One major advantage that this chip has over the EPROM is that even single memory can be altered, i.e. the entire memory need not be erased. 6. Registers: The CPU processes data and instructions with high speed; there is also movement of data between various units of computer. It is necessary to transfer the

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processed data with high speed. So the computer uses a number of special memory units called registers. They are not part of the main memory but they store data or information temporarily and pass it on as directed by the control unit.
Secondary Memory or Auxiliary storage devices Secondary memory is the slower and cheaper form of memory. CPU does not access the secondary memory directly. The content in it must first be copied into the primary storage RAM for CPU to process. 1. Floppy Disks: Unlike most hard disks, floppy disks (often called floppies or diskettes) are portable, because you can remove them from a disk drive. Disk drives for floppy disks are called floppy drives. Floppy disks are slower to access than hard disks and have less storage capacity, but they are much less expensive. And most importantly, they are portable. 2. Hard Disk: Hard disk is a magnetic disk on which you can store computer data. The term hard is used to distinguish it from a soft or floppy disk. Hard disks hold more data and are faster than floppy disks. A single hard disk usually consists of several platters. Each platter requires two read/ write heads, one for each side. All the read/write heads are attached to a single access arm so that they can not move independently. Each platter has the same number of tracks, and a track location that cuts across all platters is called a cylinder. 3. Compact Disk/ Read Only Memory (CD-ROM): CD-ROM disks are made of reflective metals. CD-ROM is written during the process of manufacturing by high power laser beam. Here the storage density is very high, storage cost is very low and access time is relatively fast. Each disk is approximately 4 1/2 inches in diameter and can hold over 600 MB of data. As the CD-ROM can be read only we cannot write or make changes into the data contained in it.  4. Write Once, Read Many (WORM): The inconvenience that we can not write any thing in to a CD-ROM is avoided in WORM. A WORM allows the user to write data permanently on to the disk. Once the data is written it can never be erased without physically damaging the disk. Here data can be recorded from keyboard,

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video scanner, OCR equipment and other devices. The advantage of WORM is that it can store vast amount of data amounting to gigabytes (109 bytes). Any document in a WORM can be accessed very fast, say less than 30 seconds.  5. CD-RW (Rewritable): These are optical disks where data can be written, erased and re-written. This also applies a laser beam to write and re-write the data. These disks may be used as alternatives to traditional disks. Erasable optical disks are based on a technology known as magnetic optical (MO). To write a data bit on to the erasable optical disk the MO drive's laser beam heats a tiny, precisely defined point on the disk's surface and magnetizes it.
Cache Memory: The speed of CPU is extremely high compared to the access time of main memory. Therefore the performance of CPU decreases due to the slow speed of main memory. To decrease the mismatch in operating speed, a small memory chip is attached between CPU and Main memory whose access time is very close to the processing speed of CPU. It is called CACHE memory. CACHE memories are accessed much faster than conventional RAM. It is used to store programs or data currently being executed or temporary data frequently used by the CPU. So each memory makes main memory to be faster and larger than it really is. It is also very expensive to have bigger size of cache memory and its size is normally kept small.  
Booting
Processor
Cache Memory
Main Memory

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When we start the computer main memory contains nothing and it requires operating system to be loaded into it. Process of loading the operating system from hard disk to main memory is called booting. SOFTWARE Software is a collection of a program. Computer software is normally classified into following three categories.   System Software   Application Software   Utility Software System software is software designed to operate the computer hardware and to provide a platform for running application software. EXAMPLES  Loaders  Linkers  Utility software (compilers, editors etc.)  Desktop environment / Graphical user interface  Shells  BIOS  Boot loaders Application Software is a set of programs to carry out operations for a specific application. For example, payroll is an application software for an organization to produce pay slips as an output. Application software is useful for word processing, billing system, accounting, producing statistical report, analysis of numerous data in research, weather forecasting, etc.  EXAMPLES  Word Processing       Spreadsheet  Database  Presentation Graphics

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 Entertainment, Games
Utility Software is a type of system software that includes editors, translators etc.
Operating System An operating system is used to provide an interface between user and computer. An operating system acts as a manager for the computer system because it ensures the efficient use of resources attached to the computer. An operating system is also known as resource manager.  Functions of Operating System  Process Management  Memory Management  Input/Output Management  File Management  Disk Management Types of Operating System o Single user operating system o Multi-user operating system o Multi-tasking operating system o Multi-threading operating system o Batch operating system o Time sharing operating system o Real Time operating system o Distributed operating system    

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DOS Commands
DOS commands are small programs, which are made to perform a particular job. Every DOS command performs different task. It is not possible to work on the computer without these commands. There are two types of DOS command.
(1) Internal Commands
(2) External Commands
 Internal Commands: These commands enter into the computer memory during computer booting. These commands are not in the form of any file; so neither they can be viewed nor can be edited or detected. For example : MD, CD, TIME, DATE, COPY, COPR CON, TYPE ETC.
 External Commands: These commands are stored in the computer list in the form of files. These Commands can be viewed, copied, changed or deleted. For example : FORMAT, COPY, PRINT, SYS, EDIT, TREE, SORT, PROMPT etc.
Important Internal DOS Commands:
 (i) MD (Make Directory) : We use this commands to make a new directory or sub directory.
Syntax : C\:>MD DIRECTORY NAME
Example : MD STUDENT
 (ii) CD (Change Directory) : This commands is used to move from one directory to another.
Syntax : C:\> CD Directory name
Example : > CD Student
Exit to Directory :
 CD… The command move the subdirectory to parent directory.
CD\ The command is used to move directly to the root directory.
 (iii) RD (Remove Directory) : If a Directory which was earlier is ;not required than such directory can be removed by using
Syntax : C:\> RD Directory name
Example : >RD student

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Note : (a) The directory, which is to be removed, must be empty.
(b) The directory in which one is working cannot be removed.
One has to close the directory and come to the parent directory to remove that directory.

(iv) Copy Con : Its command is used to create a file. The name of the file, which is to be created, is written after the copy Con leaving one space in between
Syntax : Copy Con file name
-------------------------------
-------------------------------
To created a file, the following steps are :
(i) Type Copy Con Monu and press Enter.
(ii) Type whatever is to be typed in the file.
(iii) Press F6 function key or CTRL + Z keys ‘?Z’ will be displayed on the screen, which indicates that the file is complete.
(iv) Press Enter and after that the DOS will save the file and will display the message ‘1 File(s) copied.
 (v) Del : This command is used to erase the files which are no longer required.
Syntax : C:\> Del < File name >
Example : >Del Monu
(vi) Type : This command is used to view the contents of text file.
Syntax : Type <file name>
 (vii) Copy : This command is used to copy of file from one place to another place. A copy of file is another file with the same contents.
Syntax : C:1> copy <source> < destination path>


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Low Level Languages
(viii) Ren : This command is used to rename the file. In REN command two parameters are used. The first is the file we want to rename and the second is the new name for the file.
Syntax : > Ren <old file name> <New file name>
 (ix) DIR : This command is used to display of directory and files.
Syntax : C:\> DIR ?
 (x) CLS : This command is used to clear the screen.
Syntax : C:\> CLS Programming Languages: This is the language in which any program is written.  Classification of Programming Languages: Programming languages have been classified into the following three categories:         Machine Language                                               Assembly Language                                  High Level Languages
Machine Language In the earliest days of computers, the only programming languages available were machine languages. Machine language is made of streams of 0’s and 1’s because the internal circuits of a computer are made of switches, transistors, and other electronic devices that can be in on of the two states: off or on. The off state is represented by 0; the on state is represented buy 1. Advantages of machine language:  Processing speed of programs written in this language is high.  No translator is required Disadvantages of machine language:  Dependent on machine  Difficult in programming

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 Difficult to make corrections Assembly Language In this language the program is written in terms of the symbols or mnemonics, represented by alphabets of English language. For example: ADD, SUB, MUL, DIV, MOV, STORE etc. Conversion of Assembly language into Machine language is done using a translator called Assembler. Both, Machine language and Assembly language are Low Level Languages.
High Level Language These languages are not based on any specific computer. We can easily write a program in this language with the help of words of English language and simple mathematical notations. The Program written in high level language is converted into low level language using Compiler or Interpreter. Various High level languages are: FORTRAN, PASCAL, BASIC, C, C++, JAVA etc. Generations of programming languages  In the computer industry, these abbreviations are widely used to represent major steps or "generations" in the evolution of programming languages. 1GL or first-generation language was (and still is) machine language or the level of instructions and data that the processor is actually given to work on (which in conventional computers is a string of 0s and 1s). 2GL or second-generation language is assembler (sometimes called "assembly") language. A typical 2GL instruction looks like this:                  ADD    12, 8 An assembler converts the assembler language statements into machine language. 3GL or third-generation language is a "high-level" programming language, such as PL/I, C, or Java.  A 3GL language requires a considerable amount of programming knowledge. In this language we need to specify what to be done and how to be done.

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4GL or fourth-generation language is designed to be closer to natural language than a 3GL language. In this language we need to specify what to be done but not how to be done. Languages for accessing databases are often described as 4GLs. A 4GL language statement might look like this: EXTRACT ALL CUSTOMERS WHERE "PREVIOUS PURCHASES" TOTAL MORE THAN $1000. Translators The software that are used to translate one programming language into another programming language are called the translators. The main translators are:  Assembler  Interpreter  Compiler Assembler: It converts the Assembly language into machine language. Interpreter: It converts High level language into low level language. Compiler: It converts High level language into low level language. Difference between a Compiler and an Interpreter 1. In compiler the whole source program is translated once, while in an interpreter the source program is translated line by line. 2. Interpreter takes more time in the process of translation than a compiler. 3. It is easy to write an interpreter program which also occupies less space in memory.
Creating and Running Programs It is the job of the programmer to write and test the program. There are four steps in this process: 1. Writing and editing the program 2. Compiling the program 3. Linking the program with the required library modules, and 4. Executing the program These steps are seen in following figure:

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Building a C Program
 
i) Engineers Zone Awards

  “Brands Academy” & “ET-NOW” presented “Education Excellence Award2013” to Engineers Zone for excellent results in the field of IES, GATE & PSUs.  Engineers Zone has also been awarded "Worldwide Achievers Award" in "Asia Education Summit-2015" presented by Mr. Abhinav Bindra (Olympic Gold Medalist) for "Best Coaching for IES, GATE & PSUs"
#include <stdio.h> Void main() { ….. ….. }
Text Editor
Compiler
Linker
Runner
Object Code
Executable Code
Results
Source Code
Library

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 Engineers Zone has also been awarded “Dr Zakir Hussain Award” in “International Peace Conference 2015” at IICS presented by Mr Dharampal Gulati (Chairman of Spice Brand MDH) for “Social & Educational Services”
ii) Engineers Zone Branches & Universities Association
 We already have 20+ satellite centers’ for this purpose across India and are added more to our repertoire.
 We have tie-up with three major Universities Aligarh Muslim University, Tezpur University Assam & Al-Falah University Faridabad
iii) Engineers Zone Publication
Engineers Zone (EZ) has added another feather to its cap by launching its publication. Books published by Engineers Zone publication for competitive examinations as well as for university examinations are provided at discounted rate which are available across the country on book stores and on Flipkart.  http://www.qhengineerszone.org/publication.aspx
iv) What truly sets Engineers Zone Apart?
 Mr. Qaisar Hafiz (Ex-I.E.S.) Managing Director Engineers Zone has a unique record of qualifying engineering service exam (I.E.S.) five times with A.I.R-02 in 2007 and the distinguished record of securing more than the 150 marks in I.E.S. Interview. He has a vast experience of 16 years of teaching/guiding in the field of IES | GATE | PSUs.
 Engineers Zone has produced excellent results since its inception with more than 8 students among top 10 in GATE-2015 & IES-2014 including All India Rank-1. There are more than 500 final selections in I.E.S. so far, moreover there are thousands of students of Engineers Zone selected in various PSUs.
IES-2014 Ranks in Top 100: 1, 5, 7, 8, 8, 11, 15, 17, 21, 22, 23, 23, 25, 32, 33, 52, 56, 57, 62, 63, 71, 74, 89 and many more
GATE-2015 Ranks in Top 100: 3, 6, 7, 15, 16, 16, 19, 23, 25, 28, 29, 35, 38, 40, 43, 44, 51, 53, 57, 58, 62, 67, 74, 76, 77, 80, 89, 95 and many more

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IES-2015 Ranks in Top 100: 2, 5, 10, 11, 13, 19, 21, 25, 35, 36, 41, 47, 52, 69, 77 and many more
GATE 2016 Ranks in Top 100: 05, 08, 09, 12, 16, 19, 22, 31, 47, 55, 63, 67, 72, 77, 88, 90, 93, 95 and many more  Engineers Zone is having a team of IES qualified/IITians highly experienced expert faculties. Apart from our teaching, course material, online/offline test services (with solution discussion), we are also providing free mock interview for IES and PSUs.  It is not feasible for every student to come to Delhi and afford the cost of living apart from paying the institute's fee. By understanding the problems of students, Mr. Qaisar Hafiz was searching for a long time to reach to every IES | GATE | PSUs aspirant and benefit him/her with Engineers Zone's team's skills and expertise.  We have launched VSAT live classes with most advanced technology for twoway interactive classes all over the country.  All the faculty members are well versed in both Hindi and English (No language or pronunciation problems with the students).   Almost all students have qualified GATE exam and most of the students got selected in PSUs in the same-session.  Engineers Zone Commit timely completion of complete syllabus with focus on vital areas. Topics requiring a detailed explanation are taught in extended class hours on the very same day.  Well designed study material, covering Technical and Non-Technical parts including G.S., English and Aptitude.  Papers are taught in rotation with not more than two subjects at a time. A new subject is started only after the completion of the previous one.  Books published by us are provided free of cost to our students.  Additional Numerical Classes will be made available for important topics regularly.  EZ provide regular topic-wise test along with solution discussion.  Around 105 questions in IES Paper-I & II and 90% questions in IES Conventional paper I & II as well as 60 questions in GATE every year from classroom notes.

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 On-line / Off-line Test Series Schedule with solution discussion: GATE- Every year in the month October and IES – Every year in the month of April.  Regular Interview Guidance/Mock Interviews to each student of Engineers Zone for IES, GATE, IAS, & PSUs with video recording
Upcoming Batches
Head Office Munirka Delhi GATE & I.E.S. 2017  Regular & Weekend Batches  in EE & EC  Starting from  23rd July 2016
At all Satellite Centres  GATE & I.E.S. 2017 Regular Batches in ME, CE, EE, EC & CS/IT Starting from  29th July 2016
BSNL-JE(TTA) Batch 11th July At Head Office & Satellite Centres
Exclusive Batches for  IES 2017 Paper-I From 28th July 2016 Covering  General Studies with Engineering Aptitude and New Technical Subjects At Head Office
For more details Contact:   9873000903, 9873664427 Visit website for more updates: www.qhengineerszone.org   

Monday, 4 July 2016

What would be the cut off Marks for BSNL JE (TTA) recruitment 2016?


Exclusive Batch for BSNL JE from 11th July for more details http://www.qhengineerszone.org/bsnl-jto.aspx

BSNL JE Previous Year Cut off


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Thursday, 16 June 2016

GATE ELECTRICAL COACHING IN DELHI

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Friday, 10 June 2016

GATE 2017 TEST SERIES

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IES 2017 TEST SERIES

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GATE 2017 ONLINE TEST SERIES

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IES PRE 2017 ONLINE TEST SERIES

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IES 2017 ONLINE TEST SERIES

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BSNL JTO COACHING IN YAMUNA NAGAR


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BSNL-JTO EXCLUSIVE BATCH
Admissions open for BSNL-JTO exclusive batch (This preparation will also be useful for other PSUs)

Eligibility
Date of Commencement
Fee
Duration
Venue
Engineering Graduates in ECE, EEE & CSE
2nd Week of August(Date will be announced after Notification)
Rs 40,000
Around 3 Months
Head Office (Munirka Delhi-67)




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More than 20 branches in India

BSNL JTO COACHING IN KURUKSHETRA


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BSNL-JTO EXCLUSIVE BATCH
Admissions open for BSNL-JTO exclusive batch (This preparation will also be useful for other PSUs)

Eligibility
Date of Commencement
Fee
Duration
Venue
Engineering Graduates in ECE, EEE & CSE
2nd Week of August(Date will be announced after Notification)
Rs 40,000
Around 3 Months
Head Office (Munirka Delhi-67)




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More than 20 branches in India

BSNL JTO COACHING IN ALLAHABAD


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BSNL-JTO EXCLUSIVE BATCH
Admissions open for BSNL-JTO exclusive batch (This preparation will also be useful for other PSUs)

Eligibility
Date of Commencement
Fee
Duration
Venue
Engineering Graduates in ECE, EEE & CSE
2nd Week of August(Date will be announced after Notification)
Rs 40,000
Around 3 Months
Head Office (Munirka Delhi-67)




For more details please contact @ 9873664427, 9873000903
More than 20 branches in India